Transportation Resources

Around the world, professionals are working to reshape transportation systems and make them more sustainable. Technologies such as more efficient cars and cleaner fuels can help, but the reality is that we need to focus on changing individual behaviour in two key ways:

  • increasing the use of non-driving travel modes like walking, cycling, public transit, carpooling and teleworking; and
  • making individuals' car use more efficient including their decisions about what car to buy, when and where to drive their car, and how to operate and maintain it.  More 
 

Latest News

November 25, 2021 Two New Landmark Case Studies Designated
Our transportation peer review and selection panel has designated two Landmark case studies this year: TDM at Seattle Children's Hospital and Virgin Atlantic's Airline Captains Improve Fuel Efficiency. These case studies are currently under development. Landmark designation recognizes behavior change approaches and programs considered to be among the most successful, innovative, replicable and adaptable in the world.
May 6, 2021 New Resources Added 
We've added four new case studies and four additional Topic Resources this past year. Read about the case studies in the left hand column below, and about the Topic Resources in the right hand column.

Most Recent Transportation Case Studies

Landmark Case Study TDM at Seattle Children’s Hospital  Environment

This case study is currently under development.

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Landmark Case Study Virgin Atlantic’s Airline Captains Improve Fuel Efficiency  Environment

 This case study is currently under development.

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Norway’s Promotion of Electric Vehicles  Environment

Several policies / incentives, in place over an extended period, have made Norwegians more likely to purchase electric vehicles (EVs) than people in any other country. These incentives have included: exemption from vehicle registration and high purchase taxes, reduced road tolls, free parking, and access to some bus lanes. A similar long-term approach could be adapted for other big-ticket purchasing behaviors where the impact justifies the expense – for example energy-efficient home / building retrofits and appliances. Norway's electric cars are close to zero-emission as 98% of its electricity came from hydropower.

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Landmark Case Study Seattle’s Just One Trip Phase II  EnvironmentHealth

Just One Trip Phase II illustrates the use of Propensity Modelling / Predictive Analysis, Street Ambassadors, Quality Online User Experience (UX), and trip planning to reduce the proportion of single-occupant car trips in Seattle WA, USA. It engaged over 21,000 people and on average participants reduced four drive-alone trips per week per person. Designated a Landmark case study in 2020.

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Landmark Case Study City of Austin’s Leave Time Travel Incentive  EnvironmentHealth

The City of Austin reduced employee commute travel by one million vehicle miles within six months of making its Leave Time Reward (LTR) a permanent incentive. During this period, the percentage of drive-alone trips fell from 53% to 41%. Attribution of these impacts to the City’s time off incentive policy is strengthened because that policy was introduced in the pilot study, then withdrawn after the pilot, then later reintroduced for the permanent program (Reversal Design.) Designated a Landmark case study in 2020.

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Way to Go Durham  Environment

This case study covers the formative research and pilot testing of the City of Durham’s Way to Go program with City staff and local university students. It illustrates the value of A/B testing and Randomized Control Trials for evaluating alternative program tactics. It exemplifies the effective use of personalized commute plans distributed en-masse and shows that they can have a substantial impact on travel behavior, even with no added incentives.

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BART Perks 2  Environment

BART Perks Phase II used a Smartphone-based platform to incentivize shifts in public transit trips that reduced peak demand. The approach proved cost-effective relative to the average fare associated with each freed-up seat. At full-scale, the approach was predicted to be cost-effective relative to purchasing and maintaining more transit cars. This six-month randomized control study took place in San Francisco during the first half of 2019.

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Stay on the Ground  Environment

The most effective approach to-date at shifting air travel to train travel, and also at promoting the sale of carbon offsets for airplane travel, this approach could also work well for other behaviors that are perceived by the audience as clearly important to do, yet are not being adopted by many people.

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Landmark Case Study Bologna’s Bella Mossa  EnvironmentHealth

Bologna’s Bella Mossa program awarded participants points for walking, cycling or using public transport. Points could be redeemed for discounts or payment towards merchandise and services from 85 retailers, including supermarkets, sports retailers, bike stores, opticians, bookshops, cinemas, restaurants and bars. In 2018, 10,000 people reported taking 995,000 trips by alternative transportation methods, totalling 3.7 million kilometres and saving 711 tonnes of CO2. The program won CIVITAS’s “Bold Measure" award in 2017 and was designated a Landmark case study in 2019.

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Landmark Case Study Capitol Hill In Motion  EnvironmentHealth

Capitol Hill In Motion is a recent evolution of the individualized marketing approach used by King County, Washington State, USA. It illustrates how to further engage communities where most trips are already not drive-alone. With remarkably high signup rates, this campaign also delivered a solid 16% average reduction in drive-alone trips (surpassing the campaign goal and King County’s overall goal of a 10% reduction).  Designated in 2017. 

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Landmark Case Study Chicago’s Go Program  EnvironmentHealth

Chicago’s Go Program is an Individualized Marketing program that helps residents walk, bike, ride transit, and use bike share more frequently, while driving alone less often. Compared with past Individualized Marketing efforts in other cities, the Go Programs have pushed the envelope of inclusive, accessible programming that serves a very broad range of Chicago neighborhoods - and the very high participation rates and positive post-program stakeholder input show that this effort paid off. Because of these successes, the Go Program can serve as a model for other communities looking to integrate equity and diversity in Transportation Demand Management programs. On average, 65% of post-program survey respondents report increased walking, biking, or transit usage because of the program. The program’s behavior-changing results led the City of Chicago to designate funding for additional neighborhoods in the future. Designated in 2017. 

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Landmark Case Study Brisbane's Active Schools Travel Program  EnvironmentHealthSafety

By the end of 2017, Brisbane’s Active Schools Travel Program had engaged over 157 primary schools to reduce single car trips by up to 35% and increase walking trips correspondingly. Half of the students at participating schools travel to school by active means, twice the state average. This program illustrates good use of safety instruction and practice, stamped student passports, norm appeals, competitions, and three levels of recognition and incentives. Designated a Landmark Case Study in 2018. 

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Landmark Case Study Bicycle Friendly Communities Program  EnvironmentHealthSafety

The Bicycle Friendly Communities (BFC) program provides municipalities with advice and feedback, goal setting assistance, training programs and recognition awards to create more bike-friendly communities. It is a results-oriented program designed to encourage municipal decision makers to consider how their existing cycling programs complement one another and how they can be improved. Detailed feedback from transportation professionals and community stakeholders gives communities an accurate measure of where they are and a detailed roadmap to the future.

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Commuter Challenge: Environment Canada's Participation  EnvironmentHealth

This case study illustrates the successful engagement of a large organization (Environment Canada) in a broad-scale staff participation program. That program, the Commuter Challenge, is a Canada-wide NGO-led event that challenges commuters to reduce the use of single-occupant vehicles during a specific time frame. It is used as an awareness raising initiative and to promote trial of an activity, not as a scientific auditing or survey tool.

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AT&T Employee Telework Initiative  Environment

The AT&T Employee Telework Initiative provides information and support to all staff and management, corporate-wide, who would like to telework either part-time or full-time. Since 1992, AT&T has succeeded in developing not only a formal policy and telework program for its employees, but also a telework internet portal that acts as a model and guide for other companies interested in telework. AT&T believes that its telework initiative can be replicated by practically any company.

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Most Recent Transportation Resources

STEP IT UP! The (U.S.) Surgeon General's call to action to promote walking and walkable communities  EnvironmentHealthSafety

Being physically active is one of the most important steps that Americans of all ages can take to improve their health. But only half of adults and about a quarter of high school students get the amount of physical activity recommended in national guidelines. Step It Up! The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Promote Walking and Walkable Communities (2015) aims to get Americans walking and wheelchair rolling for the physical activity needed to help prevent and reduce their risk of chronic diseases and premature death. And it supports positive mental health and healthy aging as well.

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Longer-Lasting Actions and Responses to Extreme Events Can Have Great Impact  Environment

This 2018 paper links climate science and behavioural science, estimates the potential impact of behavioural programs, and predicts the three types of behavioural programs with the largest impact.

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Evidence-Based Intervention in Physical Activity: Lessons from around the world.  EnvironmentHealth

Effective, promising, or emerging physical activity interventions from around the world.

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Changing Transportation Behaviours: A social marketing planning guide  EnvironmentHealth

If you want to influence transportation choices, this planning guide is written for you. You may be working on a very small or large program. This guide has been designed to help you focus on practical first steps and explore additional social marketing considerations. The guide's worksheets walk you through each step, provide quick access to the key questions to ask, and link to associated recommendations for further details.  Also available in French. 

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Talking About Taking Airplanes  Environment

This guide outlines research and tips on talking about airplane trips and climate change. Updated periodically.

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Program Impact Attribution  EnvironmentHealthSafety

This document provides a brief summary of options for assessing what portion of any measured behavior changes resulted from your program and what portion resulted from other influences. These options can also be used to attribute the affects of your program on a wide range of related variables such as resources used, pollutants released, accident rates and health status.

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Impact of Comics vs Photographs on Knowledge, Attitude and Behavioural Intentions  EnvironmentHealthSafety

This 2017 study compares two modes of visually presenting information  - one using photographs and the other using cartoons - on audience's knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions.

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Idle-Free Zone (Vehicle Idling)  EnvironmentHealth

This is the place to go for information and tools related to idling prevention programs. You'll find research, tools and findings, prepared articles, and ready-to-use graphics. A site newsletter provides news, a variety of graphics, presentations and other ideas for your idle-free campaign.

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Guides from the Federation of Canadian Municipalities  Environment

Provides guides, reports, toolkits and videos to help build stronger municipalities, with resources covering Affordable Housing, Energy, Low Carbon, Transportation Land use, Waste, Water, Women in government

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Fostering a Sustainable Future  EnvironmentSafety

Includes a guide to community-based social marketing, and sections with articles, brief case studies, graphic examples, and an archived listserv.

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Individuals Who Walk at a Brisk or Fast Pace are More Likely to Have a Lower Weight  EnvironmentHealth

This 2015 peer reviewed study finds that individuals who walk at a brisk or fast pace are more likely to have a lower weight when compared to individuals doing other activities.

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Best Workplaces For Commuters  EnvironmentHealth

This site offers extensive case studies, tools, resources and research related to workplace commuting initiatives. The Best Workplaces for Commuters program provides national recognition for qualifying employers in the United States.

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Bike Lanes Key to Reducing Traffic Congestion  Environment

More bicycle trips mean fewer car trips, which can mean less congestion for people in cars and buses. But when bicycle use rises but cities don't add bike lanes, traffic congestion actually gets worse.

 

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Bike Train Guides  Environment

This page links to a number of guides on Bike Train Implementation. A Bike Train is an organized bike ride to and from school. It is supervised by chaperones who work with students to assure everyone's safety and fun. Students may begin riding to school from one designated location, or be picked up at designated stops along the way.

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CDC Public Health Image Library  EnvironmentHealth

Provides photographs, illustrations and multimedia files, with image collections for environmental health, natural disasters, anatomy, biological sciences, heart health, nutrition, chemicals and drugs, diseases (including AIDS) and organisms.

Most of the images in the collection are in the public domain and are thus free of any copyright restrictions.

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